Original title: The human brain is connected to the Internet, please be cautious! Will encounter ethical and technical challenges
Today's point of view
Science and Technology Daily reporter Liu Xia
One day in the future, when you are on the road, you are suddenly hungry. There will be information about nearby restaurants in your brain immediately, instead of using a search engine to query like this, because your brain is connected to the Internet. . Is it cool if the scenes in "The Matrix" are reproduced?
"The Matrix" has almost become the direction of future science and technology development. "Prophecy", one of the most important future technologies is the above-mentioned brain-computer interface.
In a recent report, Fox News reported that a new study suggests that the time of this brain-computer interface may be much earlier than many people expected, and may be realized within a few decades.
Professor Zhang Junping, deputy director of the China Intelligent Society's Hybrid Intelligence Expert Committee and Fudan University's School of Computer Science, is cautious. He told the Science and Technology Daily reporter: "The brain-computer interconnection is still facing many technical and ethical issues. In this regard, Humans should be cautious. ”
Human brain/cloud interface system: brain and brain connected
Researchers at the California Institute of Molecular Manufacturing wrote in the latest issue of the journal Neuroscience Frontier that the new research project, called the Human Brain/Cloud Interface System, can implant nanomachines into the human body to achieve Real-time connection to the network.
Reported senior author Robert · Freitas said in a statement: "These nano-robot devices can identify directions in the human vasculature, cross the blood-brain barrier, and accurately position themselves between brain cells and even within brain cells. . They then wirelessly transmit encrypted information between the human brain and the cloud-based supercomputer network, monitoring brain status and extracting data in real time. ”
“The human brain/cloud interface system” was first proposed by futurist Ray · Kutzwell. Kutzwell also said that computers will be as smart as humans in 10 years. Moreover, this concept makes it possible for humans to get an immediate answer as soon as they think of a question, rather than using a search engine to query.
The first author of the report, Nuno · Dr. Martins added in the statement: "The human brain/cloud interface system" is regulated by neuro-nano-robot technology, enabling individuals to acquire all the knowledge accumulated by humans in the cloud. , thereby greatly improving human learning ability and intelligence. ”
In addition to this, the paper has other potential applications, including the ability to improve education, intelligence, entertainment, travel and other interactive experiences.
The researchers said that although it is not yet ready for a large-scale human trial, this new technology has existed and succeeded on a smaller scale.
Martins explained: "Although it is not particularly advanced, an experimental human & lsquo; brain network & rsquo; (BrainNet) system has been tested, enabling different people to achieve awareness-driven information exchange through the cloud . ”
According to reports, neuroscientists from the University of Washington and Carnegie Mellon University invented the above-mentioned technology called "Brain Net", allowing three people to share their inner thoughts by consciousness and play "Russian" games. The team used EEG to record electrical impulses from two human brains and transmitted the information to a third person's brain using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In the end, they implemented three brains in one interface to communicate and collaborate efficiently, and deal with the layout of Tetris efficiently.
Man-machine fusion: realizing the symbiosis between human and artificial intelligence
In fact, the concept of human-machine integration is not new, and others including Kutzweier have elaborated.
In 2018, Dr. Ian ·, Ph.D., in a blog post, puts forward the theory that human beings will live forever. Pearson pointed out that this is not achieved through the human body, but by combining the brain with humanoid robots.
Pearson wrote in his blog: "If you save enough money, you are ready, your brain can be connected to a humanoid robot, use it as your body, and then, like you used to, you or you Just changed to a younger, highly upgraded body. This is likely to be achieved around 2050. ”
Zhang Junping disagreed with this. He said: “If you keep your brain and connect with the machine to achieve human-computer integration, it will bring two difficult problems. One is how to effectively strip the brain from the body, which is extremely difficult in itself. Second, if it succeeds, it means that humans can also control the brain through the machine in reverse. How to ensure that the brain that is merged with humans is not in the false environment of the brain? ”
American entrepreneur Elon · Musk has previously warned about the potential dangers of artificial intelligence. He said that artificial intelligence is the most fundamental risk related to the survival of human civilization. He believes that the best way to keep up with machine intelligence is to upgrade human intelligence.
Currently, his newly established “Nerallink” company is doing research in this area. According to the company's website, it is "developing an ultra-high-bandwidth brain-computer interface for connecting humans and computers, ultimately realizing the true integration of humans and machines. ”
In an interview in November 2018, Musk indirectly mentioned that “neural connections” wanted to “redefine the way humans in the future” and help humans “to achieve symbiosis with artificial intelligence”.
Musk believes that these efforts help create a level playing field through digital intelligence. In his view, digital intelligence “will greatly exceed bio-wisdom”.
Ethical and technical barriers: not to be underestimated
Zhang Junping said: "The field of artificial intelligence is easy to be optimistic about the future development under the premise of achieving a small achievement. The trough of the first two artificial intelligences has nothing to do with this optimism that leads to excessive expectations of artificial intelligence. The brain is connected to the Internet and faces many technical and ethical barriers. ”
He explained: “First of all, our understanding of the human brain is not enough. Due to the limitations of existing detection equipment, we are still not high in exploring the temporal resolution and spatial resolution of brain activity, so it is impossible to form a smooth transition between the local and the whole, and it is not enough for us to form a full understanding of the brain. Assertion of activity and thinking. ”
Zhang Junping said: "In addition, if you want to ensure that the brain-computer interface does not damage the human body, there are still many factors to consider. For example, existing brain-computer interface devices are mostly head-mounted and cannot achieve cell-level signal control. To achieve a full connection with the true meaning of the brain, I think its premise should be that the head change must be successful first. That means that at least we can understand the neural control pathways before we can rise to the conscious layer, simulate high-level intelligence and achieve human-machine integration. In general, we have a long way to go from the brain-computer interface in the Matrix that enables ultra-high-speed messaging. ”
(Technology Daily, Beijing, May 12th)